Crop Production and Management class 8 worksheet
Crop production and management. Download crop production and management class 8 worksheet based on the latest CBSE syllabus including questions like define, long questions, short questions type, find the odd one out and more.
Crop Production and Management.
When plants of the same kind are cultivated at one place on a large scale, it is called a crop. crops are of different types like cereals, vegetables and fruits. These can be classified on the basis of the season in which they grow. Despite this diversity, two broad cropping patterns can be identified. These are:
Kharif Crops : The crops which are sown in the rainy season are called kharif crops. The rainy season in India is generally from June to September. Paddy, maize, soyabean, groundnut and cotton are kharif crops.
Rabi Crops : The crops grown in the winter season (October to March) are called rabi crops. Examples of rabi crops are wheat, gram, pea, mustard and linseed.
Cultivation of crops involves several activities undertaken by farmers over a period of time. These activities or tasks are referred to as agricultural practices which are listed below:
(i) Preparation of soil: The preparation of soil is the first step before growing a crop. One of the most important tasks in agriculture is to turn the soil and loosen it. This allows the roots to penetrate deep into the soil. The loosened soil helps in the growth of earthworms and microbes present in the soil. These organisms are friends of the farmer since they further turn and loosen the soil and add humus to it. The process of loosening and turning of the soil is called tilling or ploughing. Plough and hoe are the tools used before sowing, hoe is the simple tool used for removing weeds and for loosing the soil
(ii) Sowing : Sowing is an important part of crop production. Before sowing, good quality, clean and healthy seeds of a good variety—are selected. Farmers prefer to use seeds that give high yield. sowing can be done manually using hand or using machines, Nowadays seed drill is used with the help of tractor for sowing of seeds
(iii) Adding manure and fertilisers: The substances which are added to the soil in the form of nutrients for the healthy growth of plants are called manure and fertilisers. Continuous cultivation of crops makes the soil poor in nutrients. Therefore, farmers have to add manure to the fields to replenish the soil with nutrients. This process is called manuring. Improper or insufficient manuring results in weak plants.
manuring results in weak plants. Manure is an organic substance obtained from the decomposition of plant or animal wastes. whereas fertilisers are made in factories, this are chemicals made by man Some examples of fertilisers are— urea, ammonium sulphate, super phosphate, potash, NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium). The use of fertilisers has helped farmers to get better yield of crops such as wheat, paddy and maize. But excessive use of fertilisers has made the soil less fertile.
Another method of replenishing the soil with nutrients is through crop rotation. This can be done by growing different crops alternately. Earlier, farmers in northern India used to grow legumes as fodder in one season and wheat in the next season. This helped in the replenishment of the soil with nitrogen.
(iv) Irrigation : The supply of water to crops at regular intervals is called irrigation. The time and frequency of irrigation varies from crop to crop, soil to soil and season to season. Sources of irrigation : The sources of water for irrigation are wells, tube wells, ponds, lakes, rivers, dams.
Traditional Methods of Irrigation Cattle or human labor is used in these methods. So these methods are cheaper but less efficient. The various traditional ways are chain pump and pulley system also known as moat.
Modern Methods of Irrigation are sprinkler and drip system. Sprinkler System is more useful on uneven land where sufficient water is not available. whearas drip system is useful for watering fruit plants, gardens and trees.
(v) Protecting from weeds : In a field many other undesirable plants may grow naturally along with the crop. These undesirable plants are called weeds. The removal of weeds is called weeding. Weeds can be removed using hands (manually) also it can be removed using several chemicals like 2.4 -D.
(vi) Harvesting: Harvesting of a crop is an important task. The cutting of a crop after it is mature is called harvesting, harvesting can be done manually or using machines, harvester is a machine used for harvesing , the grain seeds need to be separated from the chaff. This process is called threshing
(vii) Storage: Storage of produce is an important task. If the harvested grains are to be kept for a longer time, they should be safe from moisture, insects, rats and microorganisms. Farmers store grains in jute bags or metallic bins. However, large scale storage of grains is done in silos and granaries to protect them from pests like rats and insects.