Class 6 History: New Questions and Ideas - Notes, MCQs, Mind Map, and Extra Questions

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Embark on a journey of intellectual discovery with our comprehensive Class 6 History Chapter 6 "New Questions and Ideas" notes, MCQs, mind map, and extra questions and answers. Designed to foster critical thinking, these resources delve into new questions and ideas that have shaped history. If you're looking for a deeper understanding of the topic, our class 6 extra questions and class 6 notes serve as a perfect guide.

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Teachings of Lord Buddha

Gautama Buddha, also known simply as the Buddha, was an ascetic, a sage, and the founder of Buddhism, one of the world's major religions. He is believed to have lived and taught in northeastern India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE.

Buddha, which means "awakened one" or "the enlightened one", is a title rather than a name. Gautama was his clan name and Siddhartha was his given name, often used in Western literature. According to traditional Buddhist accounts, he was born as Siddhartha Gautama into a royal family in the kingdom of Kapilavastu (in present-day Nepal) and lived a sheltered, luxurious life.

Siddhartha Gautama is traditionally said to have been disillusioned with the suffering he saw in the world and decided to give up his privileged life to seek answers. This spiritual quest, involving rigorous ascetic practices, ultimately led to his awakening or enlightenment under a Bodhi tree in Bodh Gaya, India.

The Buddha's teachings form the basis of Buddhism and revolve around the Four Noble Truths (the truth of suffering, the cause of suffering, the end of suffering, and the path that leads to the end of suffering) and the Eightfold Path, which provides guidelines for moral conduct, concentration, and wisdom. His teachings emphasized the potential for individuals to attain Nirvana, a state of liberation from suffering and the cycle of rebirth.

After his enlightenment, the Buddha spent the remainder of his life traveling, teaching a diverse range of people from nobles to criminals, encouraging them to follow the Middle Way, a path of moderation away from the extremes of self-indulgence and self-mortification. He passed away at the age of 80, entering a state of deathless Nirvana (Parinirvana). His teachings continue to influence millions of people around the world today.

Teachings of Lord Buddha

The teachings of Gautama Buddha, collectively known as the Dharma, serve as the guiding principles of the Buddhist faith. They are based on the Buddha's enlightenment and his insights into the nature of existence. Here are the key teachings of Gautama Buddha:

  1. The Four Noble Truths: These are the central teachings of Buddhism, outlining the essence of Buddha's teachings.

    • The Truth of Suffering (Dukkha): Life inevitably involves suffering. This is interpreted not only as literal suffering but also as dissatisfaction and discontentment.

    • The Truth of the Cause of Suffering (Samudāya): The root of suffering is desire or craving (tanha) — for sensuality, for existence, and for non-existence.

    • The Truth of the End of Suffering (Nirodha): The end of suffering is achievable — an end to desire means an end to suffering.

    • The Truth of the Path leading to the End of Suffering (Magga): There is a path to end suffering, known as the Noble Eightfold Path.

  2. The Noble Eightfold Path: This is a guide for behavior that, if followed, is said to lead to liberation from the cycle of rebirth and suffering. The path includes:

    • Right Understanding (or Right View): Understanding the Four Noble Truths and the nature of the self and the world.

    • Right Intention (or Right Thought): Intention of renunciation, intention of goodwill, intention of harmlessness.

    • Right Speech: Speaking truthfully, avoiding slander, harsh words, and frivolous talk.

    • Right Action: Acting in ways that are non-harming to oneself and others.

    • Right Livelihood: Making a living in a way that is not harmful to others.

    • Right Effort: Making an effort to improve oneself.

    • Right Mindfulness: Developing awareness of the body, sensations, feelings, and states of mind.

    • Right Concentration: Developing the mental focus necessary for meditation.

  3. The Middle Way: This is the idea that one can achieve liberation from the cycle of reincarnation and reach enlightenment by avoiding extremes of indulgence and austerity. Instead, one should pursue a path of moderation.

  4. Dependent Origination (Pratītyasamutpāda): This refers to the interconnectedness of all things, stating that all phenomena arise in dependence upon other phenomena.

  5. Three Marks of Existence: The Buddha taught that all of conditioned existence, without exception, is marked by three characteristics:

    • Anicca (Impermanence): All things are constantly changing and are therefore not permanent.

    • Dukkha (Suffering): Due to this constant change, life is filled with suffering.

    • Anatta (No-Self): There is no unchanging, permanent self, soul or essence in phenomena.

These are the core teachings of Buddha. However, Buddhism has developed into various traditions and schools over centuries, each with its own interpretations and additional teachings.


The Upanishads are ancient Sanskrit texts of spiritual teaching and ideas of Hindu philosophy. They form the last part of the Vedas, the ancient Indian sacred literature, and are also referred to as Vedanta (the "end of the Vedas"). They were composed and compiled over a long period, roughly between 800 BCE and 200 BCE, with some possibly even older and a few of them of a later date.

The Upanishads serve as the foundational works for much of Hindu philosophy, exploring a range of ideas including the concepts of Brahman (the Ultimate Reality or Absolute) and Atman (the individual self or soul). The dialogues within these texts between sages and their students delve into deep metaphysical and spiritual topics, discussing the nature of reality, consciousness, the nature of the divine, and the path to liberation (moksha).

Among the more than 200 known Upanishads, 13 of them are considered the "principal" Upanishads, which have been commented upon by great philosophers such as Adi Shankara and Ramanuja, and are therefore particularly important in the philosophical traditions of Hinduism. These include texts such as the Brihadaranyaka, Chandogya, Taittiriya, Aitareya, Kena, Katha, Prashna, Mundaka, Mandukya, Isha, Shvetashvatara, and more.

Some key teachings and ideas found in the Upanishads include:

  • Brahman: This refers to the ultimate, unchanging reality, which is the source of all things but transcends the phenomenal world.

  • Atman: This refers to the individual self or soul. The Upanishads explore the relationship between Atman and Brahman and often conclude that they are not two distinct entities but the same.

  • Moksha: This is the concept of liberation or release from the cycle of death and rebirth (samsara). The Upanishads outline various paths to achieving moksha, including through knowledge of the self (jnana), devotion (bhakti), and disciplined practice (yoga).

  • Karma and Reincarnation: The Upanishads also explore the laws of karma, the principle of cause and effect, and the process of reincarnation, wherein the soul is reborn in a new body after death.

  • Yoga and Meditation: The practice of yoga and meditation as tools for achieving self-realization and unity with the divine are also discussed.

The Upanishads have had a significant influence on Indian philosophy and were also key to the development of Buddhist and Jain thought. In addition, they have also had an impact on Western philosophers and the New Age movement.


Jainism is an ancient Indian religion that emphasizes non-violence, truth, asceticism, and the multiplicity of viewpoints. The goal of Jainism is to achieve liberation of the soul, and its core principles can be summarized as follows:

  1. Ahimsa (Non-Violence): Non-violence is considered the most fundamental principle in Jainism. Jains believe in causing no harm to living beings, either through physical actions, words, or thoughts.

  2. Satya (Truth): Jains are taught to always speak the truth. Falsehood is considered a form of violence.

  3. Asteya (Non-Stealing): Taking anything that is not willingly given is considered stealing in Jainism.

  4. Brahmacharya (Chastity): Jains are taught to control their senses, which includes practicing chastity, or sexual restraint.

  5. Aparigraha (Non-Attachment): This involves detachment from people, places, and material things. Attachment is seen as leading to harmful desires and personal suffering.

Jainism is based on the teachings of twenty-four spiritual teachers known as Tirthankaras, with Lord Mahavira being the last. Lord Mahavira, who lived during the 6th century BCE (approximately the same time as Buddha), is the most well-known figure in Jainism, and his teachings form the core of its philosophy.

Jains believe in karma and the cycle of death and rebirth (reincarnation). They strive to attain a state of liberation (Moksha) where the soul escapes this cycle and attains divine consciousness.

The Jain community is divided into two major sects: Digambaras and Svetambaras, with some differences in practices and doctrines. However, both sects uphold the principles of non-violence, truth, non-stealing, chastity, and non-attachment.

Jainism has had a significant influence on Indian culture and philosophy, with its strict ethical code and emphasis on non-violence. Even though Jainism has a relatively small number of adherents, it continues to have an impact on Indian society and beyond.

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