Depreciation, Provisions and Reserves - Notes, Mind map & Extra Questions

Depreciation, Provisions and Reserves - Notes, Mind map & Extra Questions
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Step into the intriguing world of accounting with the vital concept of Depreciation, Provisions, and Reserves in Class 11 Accountancy, particularly in Chapter 7. This chapter is a treasure trove of knowledge for students looking to master the nuances of financial depreciation and the strategic use of provisions and reserves. Understanding Depreciation Provisions and Reserves is essential for any aspiring accountant, as it provides insights into how businesses manage their assets and secure their financial future.

The Provision and Reserves Class 11 Notes are an invaluable resource, offering a detailed exploration of how depreciation is calculated and the importance of setting aside provisions and reserves. These notes delve into the various methods of calculating depreciation, the reasons behind creating provisions, and the strategic approach to reserves. They equip students with the knowledge to make informed decisions about asset management and financial planning.

Furthermore, the Depreciation Provisions and Reserves Questions and Answers segment offers a practical approach to understanding these concepts. This section challenges students with real-life scenarios, ensuring a thorough grasp of the subject matter.

For a more structured learning experience, the Provision and Reserve Class 11 Mind Map is an innovative tool that simplifies complex topics into an easy-to-understand visual format. This mind map aids in quick revision and solidifies the understanding of key concepts.

Additionally, the Provision and Reserve Class 11 Extra Questions are a boon for students looking to test their knowledge and prepare for exams. These questions cover a range of topics, ensuring a comprehensive understanding of the chapter.

As you explore Class 11 Accountancy Chapter 7, you’re not just learning accounting theories; you’re gaining practical skills essential for managing a business's financial health. With a solid understanding of Depreciation, Provisions, and Reserves, you’re laying down a strong foundation for a successful career in finance and accountancy.


Depreciation is an accounting method of allocating the cost of a tangible or physical asset over its useful life. It represents how much of an asset's value has been used up over time. Businesses use depreciation to earn revenue from an asset while expensing a part of its cost each year the asset is used.

Causes of Depreciation

Depreciation is caused by several factors, including wear and tear from use, passage of time, and obsolescence due to technological advancements. Natural factors like weather and accidents can also contribute to the depreciation of an asset.

Factors Affecting the Amount of Depreciation

The amount of depreciation is influenced by the initial cost of the asset, its residual or salvage value, the expected useful life of the asset, and the depreciation method chosen.

Methods of Calculating Depreciation Amount

There are several methods for calculating depreciation, including the Straight-Line Method, the Declining Balance Method, and the Units of Production Method. Each method has different implications for the amount of depreciation charged each year.

Methods of Recording Depreciation

Depreciation can be recorded in accounting records through the direct charging method, where depreciation is charged directly to the asset account, or the provision for depreciation/accumulated depreciation method, where depreciation is accumulated in a separate account.

Disposal of Asset

When an asset is sold or disposed of, the disposal needs to be recorded in the accounting records. This involves removing the asset's cost and accumulated depreciation from the books and recording any gain or loss on the disposal.

Effect of any Addition or Extension to the Existing Asset

Additions or extensions to an existing asset increase its value and possibly its useful life. These changes can affect the depreciation calculations, often requiring adjustments to the asset’s residual value and depreciation rate.


Provisions in accounting are amounts set aside from profits to cover anticipated future expenses or liabilities. These are not freely available for distribution but are used for specific expenses, such as repairs, taxes, or legal settlements.


Reserves are part of a company's profits set aside for general or specific purposes, like future expansion, paying off debt, or covering unforeseen expenses. Unlike provisions, reserves are not meant for known liabilities or expenses.

Secret Reserve

A secret reserve, or hidden reserve, is a reserve that is not disclosed in the financial statements. It is created by undervaluing assets or overvaluing liabilities. Secret reserves are typically used by companies to strengthen their financial position without showing this strength in the balance sheet.

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  • Depreciation
  • Provisions and reserves

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