NCERT Solutions For Class 11 Psychology Chapter 3 Human Development

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Embark on an enlightening journey through Class 11 Psychology Chapter 3, where the intriguing concept of 'Human Development' is unveiled. As part of the comprehensive NCERT Class 11 Psychology syllabus, this chapter offers a unique window into the stages and significance of human growth and development. For students aiming to grasp the complexities of human psychology, the Class 11 Psychology Chapter 3 Solutions are an invaluable tool, simplifying and elucidating key concepts.

Delving into 'Human Development in Class 11 Psychology', students explore the various dimensions of developmental changes from infancy to adulthood. The chapter is meticulously designed to cater to the curious minds of Class 11 students, providing clear answers and insights into how humans evolve psychologically throughout their lives. The Class 11 Psychology Chapter 3 Question Answer section further enhances understanding, allowing students to test their knowledge and apply theoretical concepts to real-life scenarios.

Moreover, the 'Human Development Class 11 Question Answer' segment is not just about rote learning; it encourages analytical thinking and a deeper comprehension of the developmental processes. Coupled with the 'Human Development Class 11 Solutions', these resources make the subject matter more approachable and easier to master.

In essence, Chapter 3 of the NCERT Class 11 Psychology textbook is not just another academic chapter; it's a journey through the fascinating stages of human life, offering insights that are crucial for anyone interested in the field of psychology. With the help of well-structured solutions and engaging question-answers, students are well-equipped to explore and understand the complexities of human development.

Q1. 'Environment of the child has a major role in the development of the child’. Support your answer with examples.

Ans: Environment of the child has a major role to play in the development of the child because it includes the surroundings in which the child develops various cognitive and motor skills. It also influences the physical development of the child according to the limits set by genetic characteristics. The socio-economic and cultural environment has a major role in the development of the child’s process, e.g., a child who is sent to school is able to develop characteristics of confidence and self-reliance more easily than a child who does not receive education. Thus, the environment plays a vital role in the child’s development.

Q2. What is development? How is it different from growth and maturation?

Ans: Development is a process by which an individual grows and changes throughout the life cycle. The term Development refers to the changes that have a direction and hold definite relationship with what precedes it. Includes changes in size (physical growth), changes in proportion (child to adult), changes in features (disappearance of baby teeth) and acquiring new features. Development includes growth as one of its aspects.

Growth: Growth refers to an increase in the size of body parts or of the organism as a whole. It can be measured or quantified, e.g. growth in height and weight.

Maturation: Refers to the changes that follow an orderly sequence and are largely dictated by the genetic blueprint which produces commonalities in our growth and development.

Q3. How do socio-cultural factors influence development?

Ans: The Following are the socio-cultural influences on the development of an individual: Socio-cultural factors influence development by providing it with a social context. The various socio-cultural consequences that a child meets with are learnt by him/ her and thus, a child develops a personality which is influenced by his/ her experiences. The socio-cultural background of an individual has an impact over his/ her interaction with the rest of the society.

The variable experiences of individuals during their development are dependent upon their social and cultural background. These factors include the conditions at home, the quality of schooling and interaction with peer groups. Children growing up in an unsupportive family environment find it hard to learn new things and make their own decisions. Children who are exposed to diverse experiences early in life develop a confident attitude and are more able to face challenges.

Q4. What are the challenges faced by individuals on entry to adulthood?

Ans: In early adulthood, two major tasks are exploring the possibilities for adult living and developing a stable life structure. A transition from dependence to independence should occur. Career and work: Adults get new responsibility at work. They have to adjust with new challenging situations.

There are apprehensions regarding differences, adjustments, proving one’s competence and coping with expectations and both employer and self. Marriage, parenthood and family:

Adults have to make adjustments while entering a marriage relation and to know their spouse and cope with each other's likes/ dislikes. Responsibilities have to be shared if both are working. Parenthood is a difficult and stressful transition in young adults. It depends on factors such as number of children in the family, availability of social support, etc.

Q5. What are the factors influencing the formation of identity during adolescence? Support your answer with examples.

Ans: The factors influencing the formation of identity during adolescence are as follows: Cultural background: The ideas and opinions of adolescents about the world around them are shaped by their cultural background and the level of their exposure. These determine the norms followed by them and hence, their cultural identity. For example, adolescent behaviour varies among Indian and American cultures. Family and societal values: The values of the society inhabited by an adolescent shape their identity. For example, teenagers in USA are conditioned to a materialistic society in contrast to young adults in Tibet who are more spiritually inclined.

Ethnic background: Adolescents distinguish themselves as members of their ethnic group thus framing their own identity. For example, expectations of teenage behaviour and responsibilities vary across different ethnicities and tribes. Socio-economic status: The socio-economic background of an adolescent determines the peer group and the extent of their accessibility to popular lifestyle choices that determine identity. For example, accessibility to expensive gadgets and branded clothing that are popular among teenagers are determined by their socioeconomic background. Vocational commitment: Adolescents begin to think of their career as a component of their identity. For example, adolescents choose whether to study science or commerce.


Q6. Describe the main features of life-span perspective on development.

Ans: The main features of life span perspective on development are as follows:

1. Development is lifelong i.e., it takes place across all age groups starting from conception to old age. It includes gain and losses which interact in dynamic ways throughout the life span.

2. The various processes of human development i.e., biological cognitive, and socio-emotional are interwoven in the development of a person throughout the life span.

3. Development is multi-directional some dimension or component of given dimension of development may increases, while other show decrement. For example, the experience of adults may make them wiser and guide their decisions. However, with an increase in age, one's performance is likely to decreases on tasks requiring speed, such as running.

4. Development is the concerns of number of disciplines. Different disciplines like psychology, anthropology, sociology and neurosciences study human development, each trying to provide answers to development throughout the life span.

5. Development is highly plastic, i.e., within person, modifiability is found in psychological development though plasticity varies among individuals.

6. Development is influenced by historical conditions. For example, the career orientation of school student today is very different from those students today is very different from those students who were in schools 50 years ago.

7. An individual’s responds and acts on context, which includes what was inherited, the physical environment, social historical and cultural contexts. For example, the life events in everyone lives are not the same, such as, death of a parent, accident, earthquake, etc. Affects the course of one life as also the positive influences such as winning an award or getting a good job. People keep on changing with changing contexts.

Q7. Discuss the cognitive changes taking place in a developing child.

Ans: The child’s ability to acquire the concept of object permanence enables her/ him to use mental symbols to represent objects. However, the child at this stage lacks the ability that allows her/ him to do mentally what was done physically before. The child gains the ability to mentally represent an object that is not physically present. Children draw designs/ figures to represent people, trees, dog, house. This ability of the child to engage in symbolic thought helps to expand her/ his mental world. The progress in symbolic thought continues. Children see the world only in terms of their own selves and are not able to appreciate other's point of view. Children having a tendency for centration, i.e. focusing on a single characteristic or feature for understanding an event. As the child grows and is approximately between 7 and 11 years of age (the period of middle and late childhood) intuitive thought is replaced by logical thoughts. Concrete operations allow the child to focus on different characteristics and not focus on one aspect of the object. This helps the child to appreciate that there are different ways of looking at things, Thinking becomes more flexible, and children can think about alternatives when solving problems, or mentally retrace their steps if required. The growing cognitive abilities of children facilitate the acquisition of language.

Q8. Attachment bonds formed in childhood years have long-term effects. Explain taking examples from daily life.

Ans: The close emotional bond of affection that develops between infants and their parents is called attachment. Human babies form an attachment with their parents or caregivers who consistently and appropriately reciprocate to their signals of love and affection. According to Erikson (1968), the first year of life is the key time for the development of attachment. It represents the stage of developing trust or mistrust. A sense of trust is built on a feeling of physical comfort which builds an expectation of the world as a secure and good place. An infant’s sense of trust is developed by responsive and sensitive parenting. If the parents are sensitive, affectionate, and accepting, it provides the infant a strong base to explore the environment. Such infants are likely to develop a secune attachment. On the other hand, if the parents are insensitive and show dissatisfaction land find faults with the child, it can lead to creating feelings of self-doubt in the child. Securely attached infants respond positively when picked up, move freely and play whereas insecurely attached infants feel anxious when separated and cry due to fear and get upset. Thus, a close interactive relationship with warm and affectionate adults is a child’s first step towards healthy development.

Q9. What is adolescence? Explain the concept of egocentrism.

Ans: Adolescence: The term adolescence comes from the Latin word “adolescere”, meaning “to grow” or “to grow to maturity”. The term ‘adolescence’ includes mental, emotional and social maturity as well as physical maturity.

1. It is the transition period in a person’s life between childhood and adulthood.

2. It has been regarded as a period of rapid change, both biologically and psychologically. Though the physical changes that take place during this stage are universal, the social and psychological dimensions of the adolescent’s experiences depend on the cultural context.

3. It is a time of search for identity. They begin to crave identity and are no longer satisfied to be like their peers in every respect, as they were earlier, e.g. They try to establish themselves as individuals by the use of status symbols in the form of car, clothes and other readily observable material posses.

4. Adolescence is the threshold of adulthood they are anxious to shed the stereotype of teenagers and to create the impression that they are adults, e.g. dressing and acting like adults, they start engaging in smoking, drinking, drugs and in sex. Egocentrism: (self-focus) Children see the world only in terms of their own selves and are not able to appreciate others point of view. The egocentrism of early childhood is especially pronounced in the first year or two before children begin to play with other children-the age of parallel play. Boys tend to be more egocentric then girls, partly because they sense they are often parental favourites and partly because they are given more privileges. While all children tend to be egocentric, there are certain ones whose environment encourage greater egocentrism than is found in the average child of the same age level. Adolescents develop a special kind of egocentrism.

According to DAVID ELKIND adolescents develop two components of egocentrism:

1. Imaginary audience: adolescent’s belief that others are as occupied with them as they are about themselves. They imagine that people are always noticing them and observing each and every behaviour of theirs.

2. Personal fable: it is adolescents sense of uniqueness. It takes them think that no one understands them or their feelings. Establishment of identity: Adolescence is the stage when primary task is to establish an identity separate from their parents. Identity refers to knowing who am I? what are the commitments and beliefs are. In the establishment of identity children may develop conflict with their parents and may develop “Identity


Such adolescents may at one time complain of being ‘treated like a baby’ whereas on other occasions treated like ‘grown ups’. This identity crisis involves searching for conformity and sameness in on self and trying to get a clear sense of who am I? where I am going in my life? Adolescence is a period of storm and stress, It is period of uncertainties occasional loneliness, self doubt, anxiety, conforming to peer pressure and concern about themselves and their future.

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