Employment Growth Informalisation and Other Issues Notes & Mind map

Employment Growth Informalisation and Other Issues Notes & Mind map
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Understanding employment, its growth, informalisation, and related issues is a critical aspect of the economics curriculum, particularly for students in classes 11 and 12. The topic of employment encompasses various dimensions that are crucial for grasping the current economic scenario and its impact on the workforce. In class 12, the focus on employment class 12 notes is integral to understanding these complex dynamics. These notes delve into the patterns and trends of employment growth, the shift towards informalisation, and the myriad challenges and opportunities that this presents.

Employment growth is a key indicator of a healthy economy and involves not just the creation of jobs but also the quality and sustainability of these jobs. The notes on employment growth, informalisation, and other issues highlight how economic changes influence employment patterns. They explore the increasing trend of informalisation - a shift towards more informal employment in sectors without formal contracts or job security. This trend raises important questions about the nature of employment and workers' rights.

These topics are thoroughly examined in employment growth, informalisation, and other issues class 12 notes. Students preparing for their exams can find a wealth of resources in these notes, including detailed explanations, case studies, and analysis of current trends. Additionally, employment growth, informalisation, and other issues questions and answers provide a practical way for students to test their understanding and apply concepts.

The employment growth, informalisation, and other issues class 12 MCQs are an excellent tool for revision, helping students to prepare for objective-type questions in their exams. Furthermore, the use of mind maps in employment growth, informalisation, and other issues mind map can aid in visual learning, helping students to easily remember and connect various concepts.

For students of class 11, the chapter on what is employment class 11 lays the foundation for these concepts, providing an introductory understanding that is further built upon in class 12. Together, these resources offer a comprehensive view of the current employment landscape, preparing students not just for their exams but for a deeper understanding of the economics of employment.

Workers and Employment:

Workers and employment encompass the entire spectrum of individuals engaged in various economic activities to earn a living. This includes both the formal and informal sectors, ranging from skilled and unskilled labor to professionals and entrepreneurs. Employment status can vary widely, from full-time and part-time to seasonal and contractual work. The nature of employment is shaped by factors like economic conditions, technological advancements, educational background, and market demand for specific skills. Understanding the dynamics of workers and employment is crucial for formulating policies that ensure fair wages, job security, and healthy working conditions.

Participation of People in Employment:

The participation of people in employment refers to the proportion of the working-age population that is actively engaged in the labor market. This includes both the employed and those seeking employment. Participation rates vary based on factors like gender, age, education, and socio-economic conditions. Higher participation rates are often seen as indicators of a robust economy, whereas lower rates may indicate issues like unemployment or underemployment. Encouraging greater participation involves creating more job opportunities, ensuring equal access to education, and removing barriers that prevent certain groups from entering the workforce.

Self-Employed and Hired Workers:

Self-employed individuals are those who operate their own businesses or work on their own, without employing others. They could be professionals, artisans, traders, or farmers. In contrast, hired workers are employed by others and receive salaries or wages in exchange for their labor. The self-employed sector is often seen as a key driver of innovation and economic growth, while hired workers form the backbone of both the formal and informal sectors of the economy. The balance between self-employed and hired workers can vary greatly depending on the economic structure and development stage of a country.

What is Informalisation of Workforce:

The informalisation of the workforce refers to the expansion of the informal sector in the economy, characterized by unregulated and unprotected jobs. Workers in the informal sector do not have formal contracts, benefits, job security, or legal protections. This includes casual workers, home-based workers, and those in unorganized sectors. Informalisation can be attributed to various factors, including economic restructuring, globalization, and insufficient job creation in the formal sector. While the informal sector offers livelihood opportunities, it often leads to poor working conditions and low wages.

Employment in Firms, Factories, and Offices: Employment in firms, factories, and offices represents the formal sector of the economy. This sector is characterized by regulated working conditions, fixed working hours, regular salaries, and benefits like health insurance and pensions. Employment in this sector often requires specific skills and qualifications. The growth of employment in firms, factories, and offices is a key indicator of economic development, reflecting the shift from agrarian-based economies to industrial and service-based economies.

Growth and Changing Structure of Employment:

The growth and changing structure of employment reflect the evolving economic landscape and its impact on the labor market. Over time, economies typically move from agriculture-based employment to more diverse sectors like manufacturing and services. This shift is driven by factors like technological progress, urbanization, and globalization. The changing structure of employment necessitates the development of new skills and adaptation by the workforce, highlighting the importance of continuous learning and training.

Informalisation of Indian Workforce:

The informalisation of the Indian workforce is a significant phenomenon, with a large proportion of the labor force engaged in the informal sector. This includes workers in small-scale industries, casual laborers, and those in unorganized sectors. While this sector provides employment to millions, it is often marked by instability, lack of social security, and low income. The challenge for policymakers is to formalize these jobs and provide better working conditions and security to workers in the informal sector.


Unemployment is a critical issue in economics, referring to the situation where individuals who are capable of working and are actively seeking employment are unable to find work. It is an indicator of the health of an economy. Unemployment can be structural, frictional, or cyclical, and it has profound implications on the economy and society, including reduced income, poverty, and social unrest. Tackling unemployment requires comprehensive strategies, including economic growth, education and skill development, and labor market policies.

Government and Employment Generation:

The role of the government in employment generation is pivotal. Governments can influence job creation through policies, incentives, and programs. This includes investing in infrastructure, supporting industries, providing vocational training, and creating favorable environments for businesses to thrive. Government initiatives like public works programs and subsidies can stimulate employment in various sectors. The focus on employment generation is not just about quantity but also quality, ensuring that jobs created are sustainable, provide decent work conditions, and contribute to the overall economic development of the country.

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