NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chapter 8 Political Science Secularism

Premium NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chapter 8 Political Science Secularism
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Q1. What do you understand by secularism? Can it be equated with religious tolerance?

Ans: Secularisms:

1. State has no religion of its own.

2. No, discrimination among the people on the basis of religion.

3. Every religion is equal before law.

4. Every citizen enjoys freedom to reside with freedom and dignity in any part of country.

Equating of secularism with religious tolerance:

1. Religious tolerance is a powerful base of secularism, i.e. state has positive attitude due to sense of religious tolerance

but they do not treat all sects equally.

2. Secularism provides fundamental rights to minority religious groups within the dominion of state.

3. The religious tolerance is not a right but a mutual sympathy.

4. Secularism opposes to intra-religious domination because, if religious tolerance is allowed only, then the people of

majority will dominate the people of minority.

5. Indian secularism emphasizes on peaceful co-existence refer to equal respect towards all religions and their practices

and clarity in case of ambiguity.

6. Under Indian secularism, religiously sanctioned caste-hierarchy are not acceptable.

7. Though secular state does not have to treat every aspect of every religion with equal respect, but it stops disregard

towards the genuine aspects of other sects or religion.

Q2. Do you agree with the following statements? Give reasons for supporting or opposing any of them.

1. Secularism does not allow us to have a religious identity.

2. Secularism is against inequality within a religious group or between different religious groups.

3. Secularism has a western-Christian origin. It is not suitable for India.

Ans: 1. Secularism allows us to have a religious identity. In India, a citizen can have a religious identity, so that he/ she can

represent his/ her religious institution whenever required in order to preserve and develop it.

2. Secularism is against inequality both within a religious group and between different religious groups. The Indian

government tries to maintain equality within religious groups to prevent discrimination and eradicate practices that

are derogatory to human dignity.

3. Secularism may have a western-Christian origin but it is suitable for India. This is due to the fact that India is a multicultural

and religious society. Thus, it is necessary to ensure equal treatment to all groups both within and between

different religions to maintain harmony and integrate the country.

Q3. Which of the following do you feel are compatible with the idea of secularism? Give reasons.

1. Absence of domination of one religious group by another.

2. Recognition of a state religion.

3. Equal state support to all religions.

4. Mandatory prayers in schools.

5. Allowing separate educational institutions for any minority community.

6. Appointment of temple management bodies by the government.

7. Intervention of state to ensure entry of Dalits in temples.

Ans: 1. Absence of domination of one religious group over another is compatible with the idea of secularism as it allows

freedom to all religious groups.

3. Equal state support to all religions is compatible with the idea of secularism as it provides a chance to every religion

to preserve it’s traditions and flourish.

5. Allowing separate educational institutions for any minority is compatible with the idea of secularism as this will

provide right to the minority to maintain it’s cultural identity and a chance to develop.

7. Intervention of state to ensure entry of Dalits in temples is compatible with the idea of secularism as it prevents

discrimination and provides equal rights to every social group.

Q. 4 Answer is in pdf 

Q5. Indian secularism focuses on more than the religion-state separation. Explain.


 In India, secularism opposes all kinds of interreligious domination and institutionalized religious domination.

Indian secularism promotes freedom within religions, i.e. no discrimination on the basis of religion, colour, race, etc. and equality among different religions.

India has promoted religious harmony to value peace, freedom and equality.

Indian secularism separates clearly the religious institutions and state institutions.

A secular state must be committed to the principle and goals of peace, religious freedom, freedom from religious oppressions, discrimination and exclusion of inter religious and intra-religious equality.

Indian constitution declares that every citizen enjoys a right to reside with freedom and dignity in any part of country.

Indian secularism follows all concepts related with principled distance.


Q6.  Explain the concept of principled distance.



According to the concept of principled distance, a secular state may keep a principled distance from religion to promote peace between communities and it may also intervene to protect the rights of specific communities.

The state gives equal preference to every religion and respects them all equally. However, the state may interfere if religious groups try to exercise their power on the political and social life of the people.


This balanced distance of state from religious groups is called principled distance

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