Sensory Attentional And Perceptual Processes: NCERT Solutions For Class 11 Psychology

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Class 11 Psychology Chapter 4, as outlined in the NCERT Class 11 Psychology textbook, delves into the intricate world of 'Sensory, Attentional, and Perceptual Processes'. This chapter is a fascinating exploration of how we perceive our environment, a crucial aspect of human psychology. For students looking to deeply understand these processes, the Class 11 Psychology Chapter 4 Solutions offer a comprehensive guide, making complex theories accessible and understandable.

The heart of Chapter 4 lies in decoding how sensory information is processed and how attention and perception play pivotal roles in this mechanism. It's a fascinating section of the Class 11 psychology syllabus, where students learn how our senses work, how we focus our attention, and how we interpret the world around us. The 'Sensory, Attentional and Perceptual Processes Class 11 Psychology Notes' are particularly useful, summarizing key points and theories in a student-friendly format.

For those seeking to test their grasp of the chapter, the Class 11 Psychology Chapter 4 Question Answer section is invaluable. It not only reinforces the concepts learned but also encourages students to think critically about how sensory information is integrated and utilized in daily life. Additionally, the 'Sensory, Attentional and Perceptual Processes Question Answer' exercises delve deeper into the nuances of these psychological processes.

Moreover, the 'Sensory, Attentional and Perceptual Process Solutions' provide detailed answers and explanations, aiding in a thorough understanding of the chapter. These solutions are a great resource for revising and solidifying the knowledge gained from the chapter.

In summary, Class 11 Psychology Chapter 4 opens up a world where sensory experiences, attention, and perception intertwine to shape our understanding of the world. Through detailed solutions, helpful notes, and engaging question-answers, students are equipped with the tools to explore and comprehend these fundamental psychological processes. This chapter is not just a part of the curriculum but a doorway to understanding the complex workings of the human mind

Q1. How does perception of space take place?

Ans:Space is perceived in three dimensions. This is because of the ability to transfer a two-dimensional retinal vision into a three dimensional perception. Spatial attributes of objects like size, shape and direction, and the distance between objects also contribute towards the perception of space. While the images of objects projected on the retina are flat and two dimensional, it is possible to perceive them in three dimensions by transferring the two-dimensional retinal vision into a three-dimensional perception.

Q2. How do socio-cultural factors influence our perceptions?

Ans:Socio-cultural factors influence our perceptions by generating differential familiarity and salience of stimuli as well as certain habits of perception. People living in different cultural settings have varying perceptions like identification of objects and interpretation of depth. For example, in the study carried out by psychologists in Africa and Europe, it was observed that the Africans have greater susceptibility to horizontal-vertical illusions as they live in dense forests and regularly experience verticality which overestimated. Europeans on the other hand, have greater susceptibility to Muller-Lyer illusion as they live in an environment that has right angles. Hence, they underestimate the length of lines characterized by enclosure.

Q3. How does auditory sensation take place?

Ans:Auditory sensation begins when sound enters our ear and stimulates the chief organ of hearing. Ear is the primary receptor of auditory stimuli. While its well-known function is hearing, it also helps us in maintaining our body balance. The structure of an ear is divided into three segments, called the external ear, the middle ear, and the inner ear. Pinna collects the sound vibrations and serves them to the tympanum through the auditory meatus. From the tympanic cavity the vibrations are transferred to the three ossicles, which increase their strength and transmit them to the inner ear. In the inner ear the cochlea receives the sound waves. Through vibrations the endolymph is set in motion which also vibrates the organ of corti. Finally, the impulses are sent to the auditory nerve, which emerges at the base of cochlea and reaches the auditory cortex where the impulse is interpreted.

Q4. State the determinants of selective attention. How does selective attention differ from sustained attention?

Ans:Selective attention refers to the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus. It is concerned mainly with the selection of a limited number of stimuli or objects from a larger number of stimuli Factors affecting selective attention:

External factors: These are related to the features of the stimuli. Other factors held constant. The size, intensity and movement of stimuli are important determinants. Large, bright and moving objects easily catch our attention. Auditory narrations are readily attended than visual narrations. Stimuli that are novel and slightly complex catch our attention. Human figures are more likely to be attended then the in animate objects.

Internal factors can be of two types:

cognitive factors include factors like interests, attitudes and preparatory set.

1. Cognitive factors: Stimuli that appear interesting are readily attended. Stimuli that are favorably disposed by us also catch our attention. Preparatory set a state of mind to act in a certain way and to respond to some stimuli and not to others at that moment

2. Motivational factors: These are related to our biological and social needs e.g. hungry person will attain food first. During examination days students focus more on teacher’s instructions. Selective attention is concerned mainly with the selection of a limited number of stimuli from a large number of stimuli whereas sustained attention refers to focusing of awareness on specific objects while excluding others for the movement. It is ability to maintain attention on an object or event for longer duration.

Q5. Define attention. Explain its properties.

Ans:The process through which certain stimuli are selected from a group of others is generally referred to as attention. Attention has different properties such as selection, alertness, concentration, and search.

1. Selection: A large number of stimuli impinge upon our sense organs simultaneously but we do not notice all of them at the same time. Only a selected few of them are noticed. For example, when a student enters his classroom he encounters several things in it, such as doors, walls, windows, paintings on walls, tables, chairs, students, school bags, etc., but he selectively focus only on one or two of them at one time.

2. Alertness: It refers to an individual’s readiness to deal with stimuli that appear before him/ her. For example, while participating in a race in school; a student can see the participants on the starting line in an alert state waiting for the whistle to blow in order to run.

3. Concentration: It refers to focusing of awareness on certain specific objects while excluding others for the moment. For example, in the classroom, a student concentrates on the teacher’s lecture and ignores all sorts of noise coming from different corners of the school.

4. Search: In search an observer looks for some specified subject or object among a set of objects. Example, When you go to fetch your younger sister and brother from the school, you just look for them among many boys and girls. All these activities require some kind of effort on the part of the people.

Q6. What is the main proposition of Gestalt psychologists with respect to perception of the visual field?

Ans:Gestalt psychologists (Wertheimer, Koffka and Kohler) outlines several principles that describe the way in which basic sensory input are oganized into whole patterns.According to Gestalt psychologists, human beings perceive different stimuli note as discrete elements, but as an organized, “whole” that carries a definite form. They believe that the form of an object lies in its whole, which is different from the sum of their parts.

For example, a flower-pot with a bunch of flowers is a whole. If the flowers are removed, the flower-pot still remains a whole. It is the configuration of the flower-Pot that has changed. Flower pot with flower is one configuration, without flowers it is another configuration. Gestalt psychologists also indicate that cerebral processes of human beings are always oriented towards the perception of a good figure. That is the reason why human being perceives everything in an organized form.

Some of these principles are discussed below:

1. Figure ground relationship: We tend to divide the world around us into two parts: figure, which has a definite shape and a location in spaces; and ground, which has no shape, seems to continue behind the figure, and has no definite location. The figure-ground relationship helps clarity the distinction between sensation and perception.

2. Contours: Contours are formed whenever a marked difference occurs in the brightness or colour of the background. Contours give shape to the objects in our visual world because they mark one object off-from another or they mark an object off from the general ground. Contours determine shape, but by themselves they are shapeless.

3. Grouping: Haws of grouping describe basic ways in which we group items together perceptually. These are simple principles through which we perceive the world around us. The principles of grouping include similarity, proximity, closure, and continuity. The principle of similarity says that objects of similar shape, size, or colour tend to be grouped together. In the auditory sense, sounds of similar tone and intensity are grouped together. The law of proximity says that items which are close together in space or time tend to be perceived as belonging together or forming an organized group. Principle of continuation describes the tendency to perceive a line that starts in one way as continuing in the same way.

Law of closure refers to perceptual processes that organize the perceived world by filling in gaps in stimulation. In case of principle of continuity if interruptions are too pronounced or too long, continuity disappears and a unified whole is not perceived.

4. Camouflage: When contours are disrupted visually, objects are difficult to distinguish from the background. This is camouflage. It works because it breaks up contours, e.g. uniform of soldiers in the forest.

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